Experimental study of glow discharge in light water with W electrodes
by D.Y. Chung, Y. Aoki, F. Senftle and T.Mizuno
Published with courtesy of Tadahiko Mizuno
created on November 6, 2004 - updated on November 28, 2004
All informations and diagrams are published free for educational purposes and are intended for a private use and a non commercial use.
This document has been fully presented during the ICCF-11 conference in Marseille ( oct 31 - nov 5, 2004 )
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|Direct decomposition of water is very difficult in normal condition. Hydrogen gas can be usually obtained by the electrolysis and pyrolysis reaction at high temperature up to 3700 degrees of centigrade. However, as we have already reported the anomalous heat generation during plasma electrolysis, the process is rather easy at the simultaneous condition under high temperature and electrolysis. Here, we can show the anomalous amount of hydrogen and oxygen gas generation during the plasma electrolysis. The generation of hydrogen, which exceeds the Faraday law, is continuously observed when the conditions such as temperature, current density, input Voltage and electrode surface are suitable. The condition of the non-Faradic generation of hydrogen gas is sometimes exceeding 80 times higher than normal electrolysis, and the report of claim of the observation for the excess hydrogen is very few.|
|Hydrogen gas can be easily obtained by
the electrolysis. However, direct decomposition of water
is very difficult in normal condition. The pyrolysis
reaction can be occurred at high temperature up to 3700
degrees of centigrade.
We have already reported the anomalous heat generation during plasma electrolysis. Some researchers have attempted to replicate the phenomenon; however, it was difficult to generate the large excess heat. They are tending the input voltage upward to very high something like several hundred Volts. But they have observed no excess heat.
Here, we can show the anomalous amount of hydrogen and oxygen gas generation during the plasma electrolysis. The generation of hydrogen, which exceeds the Faraday law, is continuously observed when the conditions such as temperature, current density, input Voltage and electrode surface are suitable. The condition of the non-Faradic generation of hydrogen gas is sometimes exceeding 80 times higher than normal electrolysis.
Usually, the Plasma State could be easily started if the input voltage had been increased up to 140V at rather high temperature electrolysis cell. At the moment, so much vapor and the hydrogen gas would be released from the cell. At the same time, the gas brings the heat out of the measurement system. It is difficult to calibrate the exact heat balance. Especially, heat release and the gas release are complicated and difficult.
Here, we can show the anomalous hydrogen gas generation during the plasma electrolysis. We are going to point out the heat measurement during the plasma electrolysis. It is very important to replicate the excess heat and other product during the electrolysis.
|This photo is the experimental system. We can measure many parameters, for example sample surface temperature, neutron and x-ray emission, mass spectrum of gas and input power and so on.|
|This illustration shows the diagram of the cell and measurement system. The glass cell is 10 cm diameter and 16 cm in height and 1000 cc in capacity. Teflon cap of 7 cm in diameter was installed on the cell. The cap has several holes, three for platinum resistively for temperature sensing elements, two for in and out of the coolant water, and one for the hydrogen gas capturing tube. The tube is made by quartz of 5 cm in the diameter and 12 cm in length. Moreover, the upper part of the tube was stopping by another Teflon rubber, and the stopper installed the water-cooled condenser in it, as shown in next figure.|
|This shows the gas measurement sketch. We supplied high voltage between anode and cathode. Evolved gas from the cathode is gathered the collector and go up to a condenser. The condenser passes the hydrogen gas that mixes the oxygen and vapor, and removes only water. After that gas go into a hydrogen flow meter. The flow meter element was model-3100 made by Kofloc Co., and the controller was CR-700 made by same Co. The flow to voltage transformer element is a heated tube of thermal flow meter system. The minimum detection rate of hydrogen gas flow is 0.001 cc/s, and the resolution is within 1%. The power output from the measurement system was led to the computer through a logger. After path through the flow meter, the gas goes to a mass spectra analysis system. A small amount of constant volume of the gas such as 0.001 cc/s paths continuously through a needle valve and was analyzed by a quadruple mass analysis method.|
|The cooling tube made of the Teflon was wrapped around the hydrogen capturing tube in the cell like the spiral, and the outside of the cooling pipe was covered with a mesh electrode of platinum. The platinum resistively temperature-sensing element for the electrolyte temperature measurement has been installed entrance and exit of the cooling tube respectively. Moreover, three sensors that were changing the depth in the solution measure the temperature in the cell. The magnetic stirrer machine mixed the solution in the cell. The amount of the heat generation was estimated by combining the flow calorimetric and isoperibolic method continuously compared with the input electric power.|
|Tungsten of 1.5 mm in diameter and 15 cm in length of wire was used as the electrode, the upper part of 13 cm of the wire was covered with shrinkable Teflon and the bottom part of 20 mm was supplied as the electrode in the electrolyte.After the plasma electrolysis, sample is decomposed by plasma.|
|The light water solution was made by highest class of K2CO3 reagent and fixed at 0.2M of concentration.|
|Takasago EH1500H supplied the electric power. And the input power was calibrated for five seconds by a power meter of PZ4000 made by Yokogawa Co. In this case, the sampling time was 40Ás and the data length was 100k.|
|All of the data such as mass of cooling water flow from the flow calorie measurement, the temperature of coolant entrance and exit, the input voltage, the current, the electric power and the amount of the hydrogen gas generation were controlled by a data logger 34970A of Agilent Co., and moreover, the temperature data of 3 parts in the cell and 1 place in the thermostatic chamber were also collected by the logger. Those data was finally accumulated into a computer.|
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