Tests at LOW and MEDIUM power with K2CO3
created on May 8, 2003 - JLN Labs - Last update May 21, 2003
Toutes les informations et schémas sont publiés gratuitement ( freeware ) et sont destinés à un usage personnel et non commercial
All informations and diagrams are published freely (freeware) and are intended for a private use and a non commercial use.
The purpose of this test is to compare the efficiency of the Cold Fusion Reactor ( CFR ) at a LOW power ( with only a glow discharge plasma around the W cathode ) and at a MEDIUM power ( with the tungsten cathode incandescent ).
The CFR unit tested is the Tiny-CFR (click here to see all the details about this Tiny-Cold Fusion Reactor ).
1 - Experimental test setup :
The Tiny Cold Fusion Reactor is filled with a 150 mL solution of Potassium Carbonate ( K2CO3 ) 0.2 molar ( 0.2 M ). The Cathode used is a pure tungsten rod ( W ) 2 mm diameter and 25 mm length from tungsten welding rods. The Anode used is composed of stainless steel mesh maintained with a stainless steel shaft.
The CFR voltage input is measured with a digital oscilloscope Fluke 123 with a Shielded Test Lead STL 120 ( 1:1, 1 Mohms/225 pF ). The CFR current input is measured with a current clamp CIE Model CA-60A ( Accuracy DC Amps ±1.5%, AC Amps±2% (40Hz-2kHz), AC Amps±4%(2kHz-10kHz), AC Amps±6%(10kHz-20kHz) ). The temperature has been measured with a type "K" temp probe ( NiCrNi ) connected on a VC506 digital multimeter ( -20°C to +1200 °C with an accuracy of +/- 3% ). ( see the photo above ).
2 - TESTS RESULTS AT LOW POWER :
At a low power the Tungsten cathode is only covered by a glow discharge plasma, the production of steam is weak.
POWER INPUT/OUPUT - TEST AT LOW POWER :
The Voltage/Current datas logged give an average electrical power input of 148.4 Watts during 499.2 seconds, so this gives :
ELECTRICAL ENERGY INPUT = 74094 Joules
The evaporated water in the CFR during the full boiling was 26 mL. We know that we need 2260 J/g to vaporize water. The temperature rise of the 150 mL was 23°C. So, this gives :
ENERGY OUTPUT = ( 26 x 2260 ) + ( 150 x 23 x 4.18 ) = 73181 Joules
Power OUTPUT = 146.6 Watts, Power Gain = -1.8 Watts
|Energy OUTPUT/INPUT = 74094 / 73181 = 0.988|
3 - TESTS RESULTS AT MEDIUM POWER :
At a medium power the Tungsten cathode is incandescent and the production of steam is strong ( see below )
POWER INPUT/OUPUT - TEST AT MEDIUM POWER :
POWER INPUT/OUPUT - TEST AT MEDIUM POWER :
The Voltage/Current datas logged give an average electrical power input of 289.2 Watts during 82 seconds, so this gives :
ELECTRICAL ENERGY INPUT = 23714 Joules
The evaporated water in the CFR during the full boiling was 10 mL. We know that we need 2260 J/g to vaporize water. The temperature rise of the 150 mL was 21°C. So, this gives :
ENERGY OUTPUT = ( 10 x 2260 ) + ( 150 x 21 x 4.18 ) = 35767 Joules
Power OUTPUT = 436.2 Watts, Power Gain = 147 Watts
|Energy OUTPUT/INPUT = 23714 / 35767 = 1.51|
Notes from JL Naudin : These two tests at Low and Medium power confirm that, at only a certain level of power, the efficiency can be greater than 1. A glowing tungsten cathode is not the sufficient condition for getting the effect. At a certain level of the current density in the tungsten cathode, the heat power produced becomes greater than the electrical power at the input. The efficiency of the CFR increases when the temperature becomes greater than 80°C. I have noticed a strong change in the glowing effect around the tungsten cathode rod. Below 80°C, there is only a plasma sheet around the cathode. But, at about the 85°C and more and if the current density and the voltage ( > 140 Volts ) are sufficiently high, the glow becomes brighter,the tungsten begins to be incandescent and the cathode heats up very fast, the production of steam is much stronger . Only at this moment, the heat produced is greater than the electrical power input. The atomic hydrogen is trapped into the incandescent tungsten cathode. I think that we have at this point a real cold fusion effect. This state is required for getting an overunity result ( at a lower current density, there is only a simple glow discharge plasma underwater ).
When the tungsten cathode is near to melt ( near 3400°C ), the atomic hydrogen is trapped and recombined near the surface of the metal, and a true Cold Fusion effect occurs...
Animated video of the CFR with K2CO3 at a medium power in action
Cold Fusion Reactor : Full Experimental datas results
Interesting documents and references :
See the previous tests :
Power Input measurements with a Power-Meter
Email : JNaudin509@aol.com
return to the Cold Fusion Project